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Emmanuel Fremiet (French, 1824-1910)

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Fremiet benefited greatly from the patronage of Comte de Nieuwerkerke who held high cultural office as Surintendant des Beaux Arts under the reign of Napoleon III of the Second Empire.  Nieuwerkerke engaged Fremiet to redecorate the Louvre with stand-alone sculptural commissions as well as architectural sculpture for the building; he further commissioned Fremiet to complete the monumental original of “Pan et Oursons” in marble.  Fremiet worked hard to define himself not purely as an Animalier, working in an incredibly broad range of subjects and genres.  But his animal sculptures remain some of his most memorable and enjoyable, particularly the smaller bronzes of individual animals.

Literature and Further Reading:

  • "The Animaliers", James Mackay
  • “Bronze Sculpture of Les Animaliers”, Jane Horswell
  • "Art Bronzes", Michael Forest
  • "Animals in Bronze", Christopher Payne
  • "Bronzes of the Nineteenth Century: Dictionary of Bronze Sculptors", Pierre Kjellberg, p. 327-337